Words and Phrases.
Let me introduce myself - Позвольте представиться.
Allow me to introduce my friend. - Разрешите представить моего друга.
May I introduce my sister Ann to you? - Разрешите представить мою сестру.
My name is M. (I’m called…) - Моя фамилия М.
full name - полное имя
first name, Christian name - имя
patronymic - отчество
surname, second Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» name, family name - фамилия
maiden name - девичья фамилия
nickname - прозвище
pet name - ласкательное имя
I was called after my father. - Меня окрестили по папе.
family - семья
members of family - члены семьи
parents - предки
father - отец
mother - мама
son - отпрыск
daughter - дочь
senior (eldest) son - старший отпрыск
junior (youngest) son - младший отпрыск
full brother - родной брат
ancestors - прародители
grandparents (grandfather, grandmother) - дедушка и Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» бабушка
great-grandfather (-mother) - прадед
descendants - потомки
grandchildren - внучата
great-grandchild (grandson, granddaughter - правнук, правнучка
first cousin - двоюродный брат (сестра)
second cousin - троюродный брат (сестра)
father (mother) in-law - свекор, свекровь, тесть, теща
son (daughter) in –law - зять (невестка)
sister (brother) in-law - невестка, золовка (деверь)
uncle (aunt) - дядя (тетя)
nephew (niece) - племянник (племянница)
step-father (mother) - отчим Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» (мачеха)
foster-father (mother) - приемный отец (мама)
godchild - крестник
relatives - родственники
We are distantly related. - Мы далекие родственники.
to be born - родиться
birthplace - место рождения
I was born in N. - Я родился в N.
I was born on the 13-th of May 1991. - Я родился 13 мая 1991 года.
to be married - замужем (женат Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье»)
to be single - холост (не замужем)
to be engaged - помолвлен
to be divorced - разведен
widower (widow) - вдовец (вдова)
She is easy to deal with - С ней просто разговаривать.
to graduate from - окончить Университет
to be fond of doing smth. - обожать делать что-либо
My Family and MyselF
Let me introduce myself to you Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». My name is Yury. My full name is Yury Alexandrovich Sergeev. Jury is my first name, Alexandrovich is my patronymic, Sergeev is my surname. I am nearly seventeen. I’m just out of school.
My parents are not very old. They are about fifty. My mother is a bit younger than Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» my father. My father is a handsome, energetic man. He is an economist and is always busy in his plant. My mother is a nice woman. She is a bank manager. She is easy to deal with and we children are happy when she is at home Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». Our parents are fond of working in the garden and we help them. They both came from quite large families (my mother is one of six children and my father is one of four) so my sister, my brother and myself have many aunts, uncles and cousins. My mother’s Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» parents are still alive and we are fond of visiting them on some family events, like birthdays or big holidays as Christmas, New Year, Easter and Victory Day. Our grandparents have a small cottage with a garden in a countryside. They are over sixty. My Grandfather takes care of Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» the garden and my Granny runs the house and looks after two pets, a dog and a cat. When we visit them we help them about the garden, especially in early spring, summer and autumn when there is a lot of work for them to do. We are happy to Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» see each other and share the family news. We have nice dinners, sing songs, dance and play games.
I am Russian. I was born in Tula. My parents have two more children besides me. I have an elder brother and a younger sister. My brother is five Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» years my senior. He graduated from the Radioengeneering Academy, and now he works at a big plant. He is an engineer. Victor is already married. His wife Mary is a beautiful young woman with blue eyes and blond hair. She is a teacher of English at school. Thanks to Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» her our parties at home are so nice and our friends are fond of visiting us on week-ends and holidays.
My sister Ira is still at school. Her dream is to become a teacher. She is a pretty young girl. She is three years my junior. She is very bright Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». She can play the guitar and speak English and French. She is also good at cooking.
I am quite an ordinary boy. I am fond of sports, football is my favourite. I am a great fan of our local team and never miss a single match. But now Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» I am very busy. This year I entered the Pedagogical University, because there is a faculty where students study Physics. I want to become a physicist. We have lectures and tutorials every day. I learn many subjects but my favourite subjects are Physics, Mathematics, History and Physical Training. There Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» is practically no time left. But,
nevertheless, I attend a swimming pool twice a week and I like to go to the Art Gallery to see a new exposition there or to the concert or disco in the evening.
Many outstanding people had hobbies. Mikhail Lomonosov was not only Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» a poet and physicist. He мейд a mozaic panel depicting the Poltave Battle. As for Dmitri Mendeleev, he liked to make suitcases.
Nowadays there is a new hobby – a computer. Young people can spend hours travelling through the WWW, Internet, or playing computer games.
Тема №2. «Мой университет Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье»»
The Ryazan Yesenin State University is one of the oldest among the higher educational establishments in central Russia. Teacher education here dates back to December 1915 when a Teacher’s College, training women teachers, the first of its kind in Russia, was established. In October 1918 it served the corner stone in the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» foundation of the Ryazan Teachers’ Training Institute – the first higher educational establishment in the post-revolutionary Russian land in July 1993. The Ryazan Teacher’s Training Institute was reorganized into the Ryazan Teacher’s Training University.
The modern-day Ryazan University is one of the largest higher educational institutions Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» in the centre of Russia. It houses eight faculties, which train students of day and correspondent departments in many specialities. The enrolments climb to five thousand students, with 200 professors and assistant professors on the teaching staff. The academic staff combine their scholarly work with research that contributes to the economic Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» development of the region.
The University course lasts five years. An academic year is divided into two terms, each ending in an examination session. On graduating the students receive diplomas which give them the right to teach at school.
Students are to attend different lectures and seminars. Students Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье»’ practical work is paid much attention to at our University and students give lessons at primary and secondary schools.
The University has post-graduate courses in Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy, History and other subjects.
The University offers the most modern of technical facilities for teaching and research, including computer Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» programmes.
Practising school and college teachers may improve their qualifications here through professional development programmes.
The University has a Preparatory Department, which helps students to refresh their knowledge before entering the University.
Much is being done to ensure adequate facilities for the students’ academic studies as well as Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» recreation. The hostels cater for those who come to study from remote places. Each year about 60 students and 150 teachers go camping to a special student’s camp.
The Ryazan University was the first among higher educational institutions in the city to establish international ties. The first exchange programmes began Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» in the 50-ies. Now the contracts with the educational centres in France and Germany have become regular, including the constant exchange of scientific information as well as groups of students and teaching staff.
In recent years promising ties have been established with a number of organisations in the USA and Canada Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». The Ryazan University is taking part in the international educational programme “Global Education”.
The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Nothern Ireland. Great Britain and Ireland are the largest islands and there are about five thousand small Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» islands.
Great Britain is surrounded by seas and is separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.
The rivers in Great Britain are not long, but many of them are deep. The most known rivers are the Thames, the Severn and the Clyde. The capital of Great Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Britain, London is situated on the Thames. The Thames is the busiest and the most important river in the country.
The surface of Great Britain is rather flat and there are not many mountains there. The highest mountains are Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343 meters high) and Snowdon (1085 metres high Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье») in Wales. There are many mountains in the north of England and in Scotland, but they are not very high. This part of the country is called the Highlands. The highest mountain in Great Britain is called Ben Nevis. In the south there are many beautiful Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» plains and valleys. This part of the country is known as the Lowlands. There are numerous lakes in Scotland. The most beautiful is Loch Lomond.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. Thanks to the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf-Stream the climate is rainy and Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» foggy. The summer is not very hot and the winter is not very cold. Winter temperature seldom falls below zero.
England looks like one great well-ordered park. The countryside with large green gardens, the little country houses and farms is very beautiful and pleasant to look at.
The total area Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is 94,250 square miles. The population is about 60 million people. About 80% of the population live in towns and cities.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. The country lives by manufacture and trade, exporting machinery Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье», vessels, motors and many other goods. The UK buys more goods than it sells because she has to import foot products and raw materials from many countries of the world. Great Britain is no rich in mineral resources. It has coal and iron ore, oil and gas, zinc and chalk.
The industrial Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Sheffield and others.
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. Queen Elisabeth II is considered to be the head of the state. But it is an old tradition. In reality the legislative power belongs to the Parliament which consists of the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» House of Lords and the House of Commons. The seats are hereditary in the House of Lords, but the members of the House of Commons are elected every 5 years.
Britain's flag was approved of in 1801, and it is known as Union Jack. It is a combination of the banners Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» of England (St. George's flag which is a red cross on a white field), Scotland (St. Andrew's flag - a white cross on a blue field) and Ireland (St. Patrick's flag - a red cross on a whiten field).
There are three main political parties in Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Great Britain. These are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party.
Тема №4 «Лондон»
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, cultural and commercial centre. It is one of the biggest and busiest ports of the 0nited Kingdom. London is situated on the banks of the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» river Thames.
London is one of the largest cities in the world and a very old city. London is more than 20 centuries old.
London consists of many parts. The West End is the symbol of wealth and v prosperity. The best and most expensive hotels, restaurants, clubs Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье», theatres and cinemas and the richest shops are found here, in the West End. Splendid houses and lovely gardens are typical of this part of London.
The East End is the poorest district of London. There are plants and factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow. Working-class Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» families live in the East End.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London, In the centre of this square there is a statue of Nelson. Admiral Nelson won the victory at the Battle of Trafalgar.
The City is the oldest part of London. The City is Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» the financial and business part of London. Numerous banks, offices and trusts are concentrated here.
It occupies only one square mile in the centre of London.
There are many ancient buildings within the City, such as famous St Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London which was Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» built nine centuries ago. This Tower was used as a royal palace, a fortress and a political prison. Now it is a very popular museum.
Whitehall is the palace of many government offices. Not very far from Whitehall the Houses of Parliament ace situated. Big Ben, the famous clock on the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» clock Tower, is known in all the countries in the world.
London is the centre of the cultural life in Britain. There are many museums, theatres, cinemas and art galleries, the Tate Gallery and the Portrait Gallery are known everywhere in the world. The British museum Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» is the biggest museum in London. It has a big collection of different things- paintings and drawings, coins and statues. The British Museum has a very rich library. Near the British Museum one can see the University of London.
London is also a big port and the industrial Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» centre of Great Britain. But when speaking of London one always thinks of Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey is famous not only for its architecture, Westminster Abbey has its world's famous Poet's Corner where many greatest English poets and writers are buried: Charles Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» and others. Here there are memorials to Shakespeare, Burns, Walter Scott and to the great American poet Longfellow.
There are many great and wonderful sights in London. But a visit to London's great museum is a “must” for any visitor to Great Britain. When Madarne Tussaud was Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» only 9 years old she helped her uncle to open the first exhibition of life-size wax portraits in Paris. It was in 1770. When she was 17 she мейд a wax portrait of many famous people in France. She came to England in 1802, travelling with her exhibition for thirty years before settling Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» down in London.
Тема №5 «США»
THE UNITED STATES
The United States proper (excluding Hawaii and Alaska) stretches across North America from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, from Canada in the north to Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» California in the south. The USA is an extremely large country in North America. In size, the United States ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China. It possesses many islands in the Pacific Ocean and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in the Atlantic. It has military bases scattered Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» all over the globe.
Features: The United States proper (excluding Hawaii and Alaska) consists of the Atlantic coastal plain, the Appalachian highlands, a vast interior plains region, the Rocky Mountains belt, the basin and plateaus west of the Rockies, and the mountains and valleys of the Pacific Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» borderland. Alaska's main physical division are the Pacific mountain system, the Central Plateau, the Arctic mountain system, and the Arctic Slope. Hawaii consists of a 1,610 mile long chain of 122 islands, which represent the peaks of a chain of mountains of volcanic origin and largely submerged in the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Pacific.
Chief Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Rio Grande, Yukon, Arkansas, Colorado, Ohio-Allegheny, Red, Columbia.
The USA has several different climate zones. The northern borders of the USA correspond to the line of Paris — Vienna — Volgograd, while the southern ones correspond to the northern part of the Sahara desert. New York lies Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» in the same latitude as Naples. But the climate in North America is, much colder than in Europe and the average annual temperature of New York is 11 °C, five degrees lower than that of Naples.
In the East the principal trees are spruce and fir, and in Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Minnesota, spruce, poplar, and birch. The northern Appalachians and the upper Great Lakes region are dominated by mixed forests of birch, beech, maple, hemlock, and pine. The northern coastal area is of predominantly oak-pine forest. Much of southern Florida (the Everglades) and the lower Mississippi River valley Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» are covered by marsh grasses. On the southern tip of Florida the marshes give way to mangrove swamps.
The Pacific Northwest has dense coniferous forest with Douglas fir, hemlock, fir, and spruce among the principal trees. Northwestern California has dense stands of giant redwoods (sequoias) along the coast Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье».
The animal population of the United States was both numerous and prolific in aboriginal times, despite the dependence of the Indian upon for food and raw materials. Since the advent of the white man in overwhelming numbers, with his firearms and with his need of land for agriculture, the animal population Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» has been greatly reduced. Whole species have been exterminated, or preserved in other than the wild state.
The Interior Plains had vast herds of grazing animals, especially bisons (“buffaloes”) and antelopes. Other denizens of the plains included the burrowing owl, the prairie dog, and the badger. The higher mountains Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» of the West were the home of the mountain sheep, mountain goat, grizzly bear, marmot, and rod rabbit.
The deserts have a highly specialized world, equipped to heat and reduce water losses to a minimum, like the sidewind rattlesnake, which keeps much of its body off the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» ground t( avoid contact with that searing surface. Of special interest is the poisonous Gila monster, a lizard found in Arizona. History. North America may have been discovered in about 1;00( A. D. by Vikings under Leif Erickson, but Europeans did not know of its existence until Columbus sailed there in 1492. The Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» first permanent English settlement in America was Jamestown, Virginie (1607). Although, effective colonization in New England beggar in 1620 when the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
Government. Head of state and government: President, elected for four years.
Legislative body: Congress (bicameral), consisting of the Senat and the House of Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Representatives. The Senate consists of 101 members — two from each state — chosen by popular vote for i six-year term; a third of its membership is renewed every twice years. The House of Representatives has about 450 member elected by popular vote every two years; each state is entitled to at least Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» one representative, with 4he total number determined periodically according to population.
Local government: 50 states, each with a popularly elected governor and legislature. Below the state level, local self-government is usually conducted through municipalities, townships, am counties
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Russia is one of the biggest states in the world Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». Its official name is the Russian Federation.
It occupies the territory of about 17 million square kilometers and covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia.
Russia is wished by the Arctic Ocean in the north, by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Pacific Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» Ocean in the east. It is also washed by 12 seas; the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea, (he Black Sea and many others.
Russia borders on many counters: Finland. Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan. China, Mongolia and Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» others.
Russia is a country which has n rich variety of scenery. In the north you can see tundra and taiga, vast steppes in the south, forests and plains in r midland, deserts in the south.
The main mountain chains arc the Altai, the Caucasus, the Urals. The Ural Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» naturally separates European and Asian parts of Russia.
There are two great plains in Russia: the great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland.
Russia is rich in small and big rivers and lakes. The Volga river is a symbol of Russia. It flows into the Caspian Sea. It is the Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» longest river in Europe. The biggest Siberian rivers are the Ob, the Lena and the Yenisei. They flow from the South to the North. There is another important river in the Asian part of Russia. It is the Amur which is in the Far East and flows Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» into the Pacific Ocean
All of these rivers are good for navigation and they also produce electric power.
In Siberia, there is the deepest and the most beautiful lake of Russia. Lake Baikal is also considered to be the most beautiful in the world.
Thousands of Russians are eager to visit Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» this lake in order to see its picturesque scenery and taste the famous fish from the lake.
The water in the lake is very clear. The stones on the bottom of it can be seen.
The climate in Russia is varied as the country covers half of Europe and Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» a third of Asia, from arctic in the North to subtropical in the South, but in the centre of it, the climate is continental.
Russia is a multinational country: over 100 nationalities inhabit it. The population of Russia is above 160 mln people.
The Russian Federation is one of the richest Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» countries in the world in natural resources. It has big reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron, ore, gold, copper, nickel, silver and other minerals.
Russia is a country of modern technology. Many enterprises of Russia, its plants and factories produce computers and cars, tractors and clocks, refrigerators Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» and TV-sets, electric motors and so on. Timber processing, textile goods, clothes and furs, foodstuffs and papermaking are the leading branches in the Russian industry.
Russia is a country of high developed agriculture. Wheat, barley, flax and oats as well as corn are the main crops in Russia. Cattle Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» breeding is very important, too.
Russia is a country of highly developed science, culture and education. There is the Academy of Sciences, many higher educational establishments, a lot of theatres, art galleries and libraries.
Russia is a country of mixed economy. The production is controlled by both Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» the government and private producers.
Russia is a Presidential Republic. The President is the head of the state. The Federal government unites three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each branch is controlled and checked by the President.
The legislative power is represented by the Federal Assembly which consists Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» of two chambers: the Council of Federation and the Slate Duma.
The executive power belongs to the Government with the Prime minister a the head.
The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court.
The state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner with three horizontal stripes on Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» it: white, blue and red.
Ryazan is an old Russian city. It was founded in 1095. In 1995 we celebrated the 900th anniversary of our city. It should be said that Ryazan played an important role defending Russia from the Tatar’s invaders. The old City (town), the so-called Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» old Ryazan, was well fortified. It was considered a large cultural centre of Russia.
By the beginning of the 13th century Ryazan had grown into a prospering city. It had developed its own architecture. Ryazan handicrafts in the 12th-13th centuries produced fine gold and silver articles.
In 1237 a Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» terrible misfortune fell upon the town and its citizens. For five days they defended the city but the enemy was stronger and the Tatars’ invaders destroyed the town. Almost all citizens were killed their houses burnt down. But then the town was rebuilt and became the capital of a strong Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» prosperous principality.
Nowadays Ryazan is a large industrial, scientific and cultural centre. Is population is over half a million people. It is situated on the Oka river.
At the beginning of our century it was built mainly with one or two storeyed houses. It has changed greatly since Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» that time. You can see many fine buildings of glass and stone in the centre and in the suburbs too.
There are many places of interest in our city: the Ryazan Art Museum, the Museum of Regional Studies, the Pavlov’s memorial house. The Ryazan Kremlin is a Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» masterpiece of Russian architecture. It is greatly admired by the tourists and by our citizens. We always show our guests the monuments to Tziolkovsky, Yesenin, Pavlov and the Monument to the Soviet-Polish friendship, our Drama and Puppet theatres.
There are many plants and factories in our city. It Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» is also a city of students. There are five institutes in it.
Ryazan is famous for its well-known citizens. They were the first to raise the people’s volunteer corps during the war against the French invaders in 1812.
Everybody knows the name of the famous decembrist M.S.Lunin Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье». He was one of the organizers of the North Society. Our famous scientists Pavlov, Tsiolkovsky, Semenov-Tanshansky, Sevastyanov мейд a great contribution to the development of physiology, space exploration, geography and geology. We are proud of poets, writers and artists who lived and worked in Ryazan and its region: Yesenin, Saltykov Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье»-Shedrin, Paustovsky, Simoniv, Solzenitsin, Pozalostin and many others. A lot of our fellow citizens fought bravely together with all Soviet people during the Great patriotic war. The whole world knows the names of Poletayev, Kashirin, Deinekin and many others.
We like our city and are proud of its Тема №1. «О себе и о своей семье» history.